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AP3231TU D: Medical Imaging
ECTS: 6
Responsible Instructor: Dr. F.M. Vos
Instructor: Dr. K.W.A. van Dongen, Prof.dr. W.J. Niessen
Contact Hours / Week x/x/x/x: 0/0/2/2
Education Period: 3, 4
Start Education: 3
Exam Period: 4, 5
Course Language: English
Course Contents: Abstract of Course Content
In this course, the most important medical imaging modalities will be covered. The course will treat the physical principles underlying signal generation, scanner hardware, and (3D) image generation and reconstruction. Both anatomical and functional imaging using conventional X-ray, CT, ultrasound, MRI, SPECT and PET will be discussed. The increasing role of medical imaging in biomedical research, diagnosis, treatment, and minimally invasive (image-guided) interventions is explained using state-of-the-art examples.
Course Content
Introduction (2 hrs):
- History of medical imaging
- Importance of medical imaging in modern medicine and biomedical research
- Principles of energy-matter interaction (overall view of all imaging modalities that will be treated in the course)
The basics (2 hrs): Conventional X-ray imaging
- Principle of X-ray tube
- Characteristics of X-rays
- Interaction of X-rays with matter
- Applications: Radiography, DSA, Fluorescence imaging
CT Imaging (3 hrs)
- Historical development
- CT reconstruction principle
- Electron Beam/ multislice CT
- Applications (trauma, cardiac, vascular)
Nuclear Imaging (3 hrs)
- Refresher course on radioactive decay
- Principles of PET and SPECT imaging
- Frequently used radionuclides and their application (brain studies, cardiac studies, metabolism)
Ultrasound: (4 hrs)
- Piezoelectric effect
- Acoustic impedance, reflection and refraction
- Ultrasound probe characteristics
- Image quality and interpretation
- Doppler imaging
- 3D Ultrasound
- Contrast agents (bubbles)
- Applications (Cardiac, vascular)
MRI: Basics (2 hrs)
- Historical development
- Spin, Larmor frequency
- MR imaging hardware
MRI: Image formation (6 hrs)
- Basic mathematical principles revisited (sampling, Fourier analysis)
- Slice selection, frequency and phase encoding
- K-space. Basics and advanced sampling strategies
- Free induction decay, T1, T2, T2* relaxation
- Gradient echo, spin echo
- More advanced MR scan sequences
MRI: Techniques (2 hrs)
- Angiography
- Functional MRI
- MR spectroscopy
- Diffusion/perfusion MRI
MRI: Applications (2 hrs)
- Neuro
- Cardiovascular
- Abdominal
- Interventional
- Musculoskeletal
New developments: molecular imaging (2 hrs)
- show how various imaging modalities can visualize processes at the molecular and cellular level
Image guided interventions (2 hrs)
- Image guided surgery
- Interventional radiology and cardiology
Visit to Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, Erasmus MC (one morning, 2 hrs)
Study Goals: Understand the principles, possibilities and limitations of the various diagnostic imaging modalities in medicine, based on emission, transmission, reflection and resonance of waves and particles: Various modalities of optical and electron microscopy, X-ray, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ultrasound imaging, isotope imaging (PET, SPECT, etc.). Understand and employ methods from digital signal and image analysis.
Attainment levels:
1. be capable of being analytical in their work, on the basis of a broad and deep scientific knowledge: 15%
2. be able to synthesise knowledge and solve problems in a creative way when dealing with complex issues: 20%
6. have an awareness of possible ethical, social, environmental, aesthetic and econmic implications of their work and the insight to act accordingly: 20%
7. have an awareness of the need to update their knowledge and skills: 5%
11. advanced knowledge of specific area: 20%
13. awareness of connections with other disciplines and ability to engag in interdisciplinary work: 20%
Education Method: Lectures, assignments; following several lecture, assignments will be handed out, that should be made as they aid in understanding the material.
In the middle of the course an assignment should be made, in which a number of non-trivial questions should be answered in-depth, e.g. related to the (intrinsic) limitations of a medical imaging modality, the comparison of different imaging modalities for different tasks, etc. All assignment will be graded and will be part of the final grade (25%).
Literature and Study Materials: Book: “Medical Imaging Signals & Systems”, Jerry L. Prince, Jonathan Links. Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005, 496 pp. ISBN: 0-13-065353-5
Additional handouts wherever necessary
Assessment: Assignments and written exam;
Durin the course home work will be handed out, and in the middle of the course an assignment should be made, in which a number of non-trivial questions should be answered in-depth, e.g. related to the (intrinsic) limitations of a medical imaging modality, the comparison of different imaging modalities for different tasks, etc. The assignment is obligatory, and will be part of the final grade (25%).
The course will be concluded with a written exam.
Last modified: 12 February 2014, 16:30 UTC
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