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AP3391: Geometrical Optics
Responsible Instructor: Dr. F. Bociort
Contact Hours / Week x/x/x/x: 0/0/2/2
Education Period: 4
Start Education: 4
Exam Period: Exam by appointment
Course Language: English
Course Contents: Fundamentals of geometrical optics: geometrical optics as a limiting case of wave optics, the eikonal function, rays and wave fronts, ray paths in inhomogeneous media. Ray tracing: Snellís law in vector form, formalism for reflection, refraction and transfer, ray failure, aspherical surfaces.
The paraxial approximation: paraxial and finite rays,matrix formalism, characteristics of ideal imaging, principal planes, telescopic systems, aperture and field stops, pupils, vignetting, marginal and chief rays, Lagrange invariant, F number, telecentric systems. Aberrations: transverse ray aberration, wave front aberration and the relationship between them, power series expansions for optical systems with or without rotational symmetry, rotationally invariant
combinations of ray parameters, defocusing, Seidel aberrations. Experiments showing the effect of spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism,field curvature and distortion on imaging quality of optical systems. Theoretical explanation of the observed effects. Aberration balancing, caustic.
Chromatic aberrations: axial and lateral colour, Abbe number, achromatic doublets.
Design aspects: situations when some aberrations are more important than others, aplanatic surfaces, ideal placement of aspheric surfaces. Thin-lens theory, sine condition, gradient-index optics. Optical design software, local and global optimization of optical systems.
Study Goals: Mastery of the concepts, theories and methods listed above at an advanced academic level. A complete 8-page list of Study Goals is available both via Blackboard and via the link
Education Method: Oral lectures
Literature and Study Materials: 1. J. Braat, Diktaat Geometrische Optica , TU Delft 1991 (in Dutch; English- speaking
students should use Born and Wolf (Ref 5) instead)
2. J. Braat, Paraxial Optics Handout (on Blackboard)
3. W.T. Welford, Aberrations of Optical Systems, Adam Hilger, 1986 (or the earlier
version Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System,1974)
4. F. Bociort, Optimization of optical systems (can be found on Blackboard)
Supplementary reading
(not required for the exam, just if you want extra depth on some subject)
5. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics
6. R.R. Shannon, The Art and Science of Optical Design, Cambridge University Press,
7. D. Sinclair, Optical Design Software, Handbook of Optics, Chapter 34
Assessment: Oral examination
Last modified: 8 November 2013, 16:30 UTC
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