P.J. van Overloop, R.R. Negenborn, B. De Schutter, and N.C. van de Giesen, "Predictive control for national water flow optimization in The Netherlands," Chapter 17 in Intelligent Infrastructures (R.R. Negenborn, Z. Lukszo, and H. Hellendoorn, eds.), vol. 42 of Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, ISBN 978-90-481-3598-1, pp. 439-461, 2010.
The river delta in The Netherlands consists of interconnected rivers and large water bodies. Structures, such as large sluices and pumps, are available to control the local water levels and flows. The national water board is responsible for the management of the system. Its main management objectives are: protection against overtopping of dikes due to high river flows and high sea tides, supply of water during dry periods, and navigation. The system is, due to its size, divided into several subsystems that are managed by separate regional divisions of the national water board. Due to changes in local land-use, local climate, and the need for energy savings, the currently existing control systems have to be upgraded from local manual control schemes to regional model predictive control (MPC) schemes. In principle, the national objectives for the total delta require a centralized control approach integrating all regional MPC schemes. However, such centralized control is on the one hand not feasible, due to computational limitations, and on the other hand unwanted, due to the existing regional structure of the organization of the national water board. In this chapter the application of MPC is discussed for both individual regional control and coordinated national control. Results of a local MPC scheme applied to the actual water system of the North Sea Canal/Amsterdam-Rhine Canal are presented and a framework for coordination between several distributed MPC schemes is proposed.