S. Lin, B. De Schutter, S.K. Zegeye, H. Hellendoorn, and Y. Xi, "Integrated urban traffic control for the reduction of travel delays and emissions," Proceedings of the 13th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2010), Madeira Island, Portugal, pp. 677-682, Sept. 2010.
An integrated macroscopic traffic model is proposed, which integrates a macroscopic urban traffic flow model with a microscopic traffic emission model for individual vehicles. As a macroscopic model, the integrated model is fast enough for on-line control purposes. Nevertheless, the model can still capture the traffic emissions for vehicles in different states compared with using a macroscopic traffic emission model, because of the accuracy of the microscopic traffic emission model. Model Predictive Control is applied to control urban traffic areas based on the integrated traffic model, aiming at reducing both travel delays and traffic emissions.