P. Mc Namara, R.R. Negenborn, B. De Schutter, and G. Lightbody, "Optimal coordination of a multiple HVDC link system using centralized and distributed control," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 302-314, Mar. 2013.
This paper presents both off-line and on-line optimisation techniques for the control of a multiple High Voltage Direct Current link power system. A frequency control scheme based on classical PID controllers is proposed and optimally tuned off-line using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The performance of this scheme is compared with the performance of a centralised Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, and a distributed MPC scheme that uses only local communications. The results illustrate that a significant performance improvement can be achieved using distributed MPC instead of classical control, illustrating the potential of distributed MPC for use in future power networks.