S.K. Zegeye, B. De Schutter, J. Hellendoorn, E.A. Breunesse, and A. Hegyi, "Integrated macroscopic traffic flow, emission, and fuel consumption model for control purposes," Transportation Research Part C, vol. 31, pp. 158-171, June 2013.
Traffic control approaches based on on-line optimization require fast and accurate integrated models for traffic flow, emission, and fuel consumption. In this context, one may want to integrate macroscopic traffic flow models with microscopic emission and fuel consumption models, which can result in shorter simulation times with fairly accurate estimates of the emissions and fuel consumption. In general, however, macroscopic traffic flow models and microscopic emission and fuel consumption models cannot be integrated with each other. We provide a general framework to integrate these two kinds of models. We illustrate the approach by considering the macroscopic traffic flow model METANET and the microscopic emission and fuel consumption model VT-micro, resulting in the so called the "VT-macro" model. Moreover, we characterize analytically the error introduced by the VT-macro model relative to the original VT-micro model. We further present an empirical analysis of the error and the computation time based on calibrated models of the Dutch A12 freeway.