J. van Ast, R. Babuska, and B. De Schutter, "Convergence analysis of ant colony learning," Proceedings of the 18th IFAC World Congress, Milan, Italy, pp. 14693-14698, Aug.-Sept. 2011.
In this paper, we study the convergence of the pheromone levels of Ant Colony Learning (ACL) in the setting of discrete state spaces and noiseless state transitions. ACL is a multi-agent approach for learning control policies that combines some of the principles found in ant colony optimization and reinforcement learning. Convergence of the pheromone levels in expected value is a necessary requirement for the convergence of the learning process to optimal control policies. In this paper, we derive upper and lower bounds for the pheromone levels and relate those to the learning parameters and the number of ants used in the algorithm. We also derive upper and lower bounds on the expected value of the pheromone levels.